most common age for prostate cancer
Prostate cancer most common; after non-melanoma skin cancer, and silent in most cases. On the other hand, when diagnosed early through preventive exams, this type of cancer has a high chance of being cured with increasingly less invasive treatments. Keep reading and get all your questions answered about risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER?
Prostate cancer develops when cells in the prostate multiply abnormally and form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that is part of the male reproductive system, responsible for producing part of the semen. It is located below the bladder, close to the rectum, about the size of a walnut.
WHAT IS THE INCIDENCE OF PROSTATE CANCER IN BRAZIL?
According to data from the National Cancer Institute (INCA), prostate cancer accounts for 29% of cancer cases in men. Each year, there are approximately 66,000 new cases of the disease, which result in nearly 16,000 deaths.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS OF PROSTATE CANCER?
Prostate cancer most common; It’s not known exactly what causes prostate cancer, but some researchers believe that mutations in the genetic code of cells can cause them not to develop normally, leading to prostate cancer.
Certain risk factors can increase a person’s chances of getting this type of cancer, such as:
Family history – a person with a first-degree relative who has had cancer is at least twice as likely to develop it as well.
Age – The incidence and mortality of cancer are higher after the age of 50. About 60% of cases of the disease happen in people over 65 years old.
Race – For unknown reasons, men of African and Caribbean descent are more likely to develop prostate cancer.
Lynch syndrome – men who have this disease have an increased risk factor for some types of cancer, including prostate cancer.
Obesity – men with obesity do not have increased chances of developing prostate cancer itself, but more severe forms of the disease.
Occupational exposure – constant exposure to some toxic products used in industries may be associated with prostate cancer:
Aromatic amines, common in the chemical, mechanical and aluminum processing industries; Prostate cancer most common.
- Arsenic, used as a preservative and as a pesticide;
- Petroleum products;
- Vehicle exhaust engine;
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH);
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PROSTATE CANCER?
This type of tumor develops slowly: most cases take about 15 years to reach 1cm³. Most people do not show signs and symptoms of prostate cancer until it is in an advanced stage, however, in more advanced cases it is possible to notice:
- Frequent urge to urinate, including at night;
- Blood in the urine or semen;
- Interrupted flow of urine or a feeling of a full bladder, even after urinating;
- Pain when urinating;
- Erectile Dysfunction;
- Pain in the bones, such as those in the hip, thigh, back, among others.
Attention: manifesting one or more of these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean the presence of prostate cancer. Some of them are common to other diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, which is an enlarged prostate. To confirm or rule out suspicions, it is necessary to consult with a doctor, who will request diagnostic tests.
HOW IS PROSTATE CANCER DIAGNOSED?
Prostate cancer most common; The diagnosis of prostate cancer can be made early, before the onset of any signs or symptoms. For this, the man should consult regularly with a urologist, who should request a routine examination from the age of 50 or, for those with a family history of prostate cancer, from the age of 45. The tests that are part of the diagnosis are:
PSA test – is a blood test that measures the amount of prostate specific antigen, a substance produced by the prostate. If the level is high, it may indicate the presence of cancer or other diseases of the gland, such as benign hyperplasia, infections, STIs, among others. About 75 to 80% of men with a high PSA do not have prostate cancer.
Digital rectal examination – quick and painless examination, is performed so that the doctor can assess the size, shape and texture of the prostate. No other exam replaces digital rectal examination in the early diagnosis of any abnormality.
Biopsy – In this test, a sample of the prostate is taken to be analyzed in the laboratory. It is the only test capable of confirming, in fact, the presence of a tumor. It is requested by the doctor if the results of the digital rectal examination and / or PSA indicate suspicion. Prostate problems
The doctor may request other tests to support the diagnosis or check the areas affected by the tumor, if there is metastasis and what is the most appropriate treatment. Are they:
- Magnetic resonance imaging;
- Color echo-doppler;
- PET-CT – Examination that determines the size of the tumors, the foci of metastasis and the possibility of relapses, helping to define the treatment of cancer and predict the prognosis;
- Bone scan – to see if the bones have been affected.
IS THERE ANY TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER?
Prostate cancer most common; Yes, the success of treatment for prostate cancer depends on early diagnosis – that’s why it’s so important to see the doctor regularly and do routine exams as requested. The types of treatment vary according to some factors, such as the age and general health of the patient, whether he wants to have children or not, tumor stage, prostate size, among others. They can be:
Vigilant observation – it’s just a strict monitoring of the progress of the cancer through regular visits to the doctor, who will start treatment only when the disease becomes more aggressive. This approach is indicated in cases of non-aggressive tumors with slow development.
Surgery – is indicated to remove tumors that are located within the prostate gland, offering more chances of cure. The approach can be minimally invasive, through robotic surgery, which ensures more precision for the doctor and faster recovery for the patient.
Radiotherapy – using specific equipment, radiotherapy uses high-energy radiation (X-rays) to fight cancer cells.
There are high-precision equipment, which allow reducing the necessary number of sessions, avoiding exposure to radiation.
Hormonal therapy – is applied with the aim of controlling the level of male hormones (testosterone) that stimulate the development of cancer. It can be done through injections, surgery or pills and is indicated for people who cannot or do not want to undergo more aggressive treatments, such as patients with metastasis (whose cancer has already spread to other parts of the body), or together with some another treatment.
Chemotherapy – indicated for men who have metastatic prostate cancer and do not respond to other treatments, chemotherapy consists of a combination of specific drugs that destroy cancer cells. Prostate cancer most common.,.. Tips for Prostate Health