What is Prostate Cancer is a tumor that affects the prostate gland, located below the bladder and surrounding the urethra, the channel that connects the bladder to the external orifice of the penis. Prostate cancer is the most common among men, after skin cancer. Although it is a common disease, out of fear or lack of knowledge, many men prefer not to talk about it.
Estimates indicate 68,220 new cases in 2018. These values correspond to an estimated risk of 66.12 new cases per 100,000 men, in addition to being the second cause of death from cancer in men in Brazil, with more than 14,000 deaths. In the presence of signs and symptoms, tests are recommended.
The disease is confirmed after doing the biopsy, which is indicated when finding any alteration in the blood test (PSA) or digital rectal examination, which are only prescribed when a case is suspected by a specialist doctor.
Cells are the smallest parts of the human body.
Throughout life, cells multiply, replacing older ones with new ones. But in some cases, there may be a
uncontrolled growth of cells, forming tumors that can be benign or malignant (cancer).
Prostate cancer, in most cases, grows slowly and does not show signs during life or threaten the health of the man. In other cases, it can grow rapidly, spread to other organs and cause death. This effect is known as metastasis. What is Prostate Cancer;
What is the prostate?
The prostate is a gland present only in men, located in front of the rectum, below the bladder, surrounding the upper part of the urethra (the channel through which urine passes). The prostate is not responsible for erection or orgasm. Its function is to produce a liquid that makes up part of the semen, which nourishes and protects the sperm. In young men, the prostate is the size of a plum, but its size increases with advancing age.
The information on this page is intended to support and inform useful data about prostate cancer, but does not, under any circumstances, replace a medical consultation. In cases of suspicion, look for a specialist doctor you trust for evaluation.
What are the risk factors?
There are certain factors that can increase a man’s chances of developing prostate cancer. Are they: What is Prostate Cancer.
- Age: The risk increases with advancing age. In Brazil, for every ten men diagnosed with prostate cancer, nine are over 55 years old.
- Family cancer history: men whose father, grandfather or brother had prostate cancer before age 60 are part of the risk group.
- Overweight and obesity: recent studies show a higher risk of prostate cancer in men with higher body weight.
How to prevent?
It has already been proven that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains and whole grains, and with less fat, especially those of animal origin, helps to reduce the risk of cancer, as well as other chronic non-transmissible diseases. In this sense, other healthy habits are also recommended, such as doing at least 30 minutes of physical activity a day, keeping the right weight for height, reducing alcohol consumption and not smoking.
Among the factors that most help prevent prostate cancer are:
- Have a healthy eating.
- Maintain proper body weight.
- Practice physical activity.
- Do not smoke.
- Avoid the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Señales y síntomas
En las primeras etapas, el cáncer de próstata puede no mostrar síntomas, y cuando los presenta, los más comunes son:
- difficulty urinating;
- delay in starting and finishing urinating;
- blood in the urine;
- decreased stream of urine;
- need to urinate more often during the day or night.
If you have any of these symptoms, look for a health unit and take the necessary tests with a specialist doctor you trust.
These signs and symptoms also occur due to benign prostate diseases. For example:
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia is benign enlargement of the prostate. It affects more than half of men over the age of 50 and occurs naturally with advancing age.
- Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate, usually caused by bacteria.
In the presence of signs and symptoms, it is recommended to carry out tests to investigate prostate cancer; What is Prostate Cancer.
What tests are done to look for prostate cancer?
To investigate the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer and find out if the disease is present or not, basically two initial tests are done.
- Digital rectal examination: the doctor evaluates the size, shape and texture of the prostate by inserting a finger protected by a lubricated glove into the rectum. This exam allows you to palpate the posterior and lateral parts of the prostate.
- PSA Test: It is a blood test that measures the amount of a protein produced by the prostate – Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). High levels of this protein can mean cancer, but also benign prostate diseases.
What test confirms/diagnoses prostate cancer?.
To confirm prostate cancer, a biopsy is required. In this test, very small pieces of the prostate are removed to be analyzed in the laboratory. A biopsy is indicated if any changes are found in the PSA test or in the rectal examination.
Do men without signs or symptoms need to be tested for prostate cancer?
Some experts are against routine screening in men without symptoms, as it can bring both health benefits and risks. Others, however, are in favor.
- Benefits: performing the exam can help identify prostate cancer early in the disease, thus increasing the chance of successful treatment. Treating prostate cancer at an early stage can prevent it from developing into a more advanced stage.
- Risks: having a result that indicates cancer, even if it is not, generates anxiety and stress, in addition to the need for new tests, such as a biopsy. Diagnosing and treating a cancer that would not progress or be life threatening. Treatment can cause sexual impotence and urinary incontinence. The risks of these tests are related to the consequences of their results and not to their performance.
The Ministry of Health, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), does not recommend screening for prostate cancer, that is, it is not recommended that men without signs or symptoms undergo tests. Try to know the risks and benefits involved in carrying out these routine tests and talk to a health professional you trust to decide whether or not you want to perform them. Natural Treatment for Enlarged Prostate Australia
What’s the treatment?
Prostate cancer is treated through one or several treatment modalities/techniques, which may or may not be combined. The main one is surgery, which can be applied along with radiotherapy and hormonal treatment, according to each case.
When located only in the prostate, prostate cancer can be treated with oncological surgery, radiotherapy and even vigilant observation in some special cases. In the case of metastasis, that is, if the prostate cancer has spread to other organs, radiotherapy is used along with hormone treatment, in addition to palliative treatments.
The choice of the best treatment is made individually, by a specialized physician, on a case-by-case basis, after defining the risks, benefits and best results for each patient, according to the stage of the disease and the patient’s clinical conditions. All treatment modalities are offered, in full and free of charge, through the Unified Health System (SUS). Early prostate Cancer Prognosis